Kidney stones, commonly known as kidney stones, is a pathology characterized by the presence of small aggregates of mineral salts (variously composed of uric acid, oxalates, cystine, cholesterol, calcium, or phosphates) with a stiff consistency, which is formed in the tract urinary, mainly in the kidneys, fundamental organs of the human body. In some cases, kidney stones, often preceded by gravel (a kind of sandstone). Made up of micro-calculi, agglomerate to form stones, are asymptomatic and discovered by chance. However, in other cases, a sharp and violent pain, known as renal colic, strongly signals their presence. Here you can learn about stages of passing a kidney stone & all of an about kidney stones.
Based on the formations’ chemical composition. Each of which requires a different therapeutic approach.
Causes Of Kidney stones
The formation of stones is favored by the increase in mineral salts’ concentration or the decrease in the liquid. That holds them in solution (i.e., by a low volume of urine, often due to a reduced intake of fluids). When the salts aggregate, they first give life to the so-called crystals, form the micro-calculations, and, finally. The actual stones (which can even reach the size of a golf ball).
Suppose the calcium oxalate crystals are tiny. However, stones are often related to an inadequate diet. Genetic predisposition is also a cause of kidney stones and plays a leading role in their formation. The acidity of the urine, dehydration, and the intake of few liquids (a limited urine flow favors stagnation and, consequently, the precipitation of the salts contained in them). Chronic urinary tract infections, abuse of certain drugs or supplements saline and vitamins, the male sex.
Stages of passing a kidney stone
The first stages of passing a kidney stone are vast majority previously become mindful. That there is an issue when the kidney stone starts the way toward confining. From the internal mass of your kidneys where it has been framing.
Sharp agony in the back and side, frequently with sickness and regurgitating. It is apparently normal when the stone breaks free and starts to drop down the ureter. Manifestations blur and stop as the stone arrives at the bladder—four types of Stages of passing a kidney stone.
3rd stage of passing a kidney stone smaller than 1 cm in size and which must be removed. Because they cause, disturbances must first be treated with the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. That we have already talked about. These calculations account for 80-90% of cases requiring active treatment. The limitation of this procedure carried out on the kidney is that. It may take several sessions to obtain the desired result. It is now proven that this treatment can involve non-negligible long-term complications such as hypertension and diabetes.
A kidney stone between 1 and 2 cm in size. It is intrarenal retrograde lithotripsy(the RIRS of the Anglo-Saxon Authors: Retrograde IntraRenal Surgery ): considered the last frontier of endourology. It represents the flagship of the Humanitas Stone Center.
The development of the RIRS has only recently been possible as the whirlwind technological progress in this field has allowed. The development and construction of flexible ureterorenoscopy with digital technology. Which the Humanitas Stone Center was the first in Italy to have available. These latest generation flexible endoscopes are increasingly smaller and more flexible. Explore it, identify the stone, crush it with the holmium laser. This procedure offers the advantage of not presenting serious complications, scars, or post-operative pain; it also provides a considerable containment of the recovery times of everyday activities. This technique’s results are so encouraging that we are expanding the indications of use. So much so that shortly, the RIRS will be able to replace percutaneous lithotripsy in about 60-70% of cases.
The gold standard for stones greater than 2 cm is percutaneous lithotripsy (PCNL). Through percutaneous access in the side with a diameter of about 1 cm. This procedure offers the advantage of obtaining a complete reclamation of the calculation, mostly with a single system. Even if voluminous, in a percentage of cases, that is close to 100%. In 10% of cases, complications such as bleeding may arise; in about 4% of cases, it may be necessary to have a blood transfusion.
Stages Of Passing A Kidney Stone: Symptoms
Acute kidney pain is the main symptom of the presence of stones. Pain, which can also derive from the displacement of the rocks from. The site of origin or along the excretory tracts. And from the obstacle they constitute to the passage of urine: in this case, we speak of renal colic. In some cases, the colic is rather painful. But on the particular anatomical formation of the kidney, the threshold of sensitivity to pain. And numerous other factors that can exacerbate or moderate symptoms. Fortunately, not all stones move, and it is not certain that a stone’s presence necessarily results in colic. Although some people have no symptoms, the majority of patients complain of warning disorders.
Usually, renal colic causes severe and sudden pain in the flank (generally, on one side only). The pain can continue alternately, decreasing in intensity. And then rapidly worsening and radiating anteriorly and towards the groin. In addition to pain in the lower abdomen and kidneys, other symptoms of kidney stones. What may occur are back pain, sand in the urine (or gravel), dysuria (difficulty urinating), chills, fever, hematuria (blood in the urine), nausea, and vomit.
On the other hand, the gravel is an indication of the presence of micro-calculi. That can cause urination disorders and/or colic.
Laboratory tests: urinalysis, radiography of the abdomen, and abdominal ultrasound. In some cases, more complex investigations such as urography and spiral CT may be necessary.
Treatment Of Kidney stones
To favor eliminating kidney stones, a classic and effective method known as “water shot” is often used. The patient is asked to drink quickly about a liter / a liter and a half of minimally mineralized water to induce a robust urinary drive and facilitate the expulsion of the stone.
How to expel a stone in the ureter: common to all forms of rocks is the water supply. By guaranteeing a diuresis of at least 2 – 3 liters per day. The urine is more diluted, and the risk of over-saturation is reduced. Treatments with mineral waters (hydroponic treatment) cannot be prolonged too long or conducted too lightly without prior medical consent.
If this method does not give satisfactory results, it is possible to resort to the classic anti-inflammatory drugs. Such as Ibuprofen and Diclofenac, which calm the pain and, if the gravel has accumulated in the renal pelvis or even a small stone (5-6 millimeters) has stopped in the urinary tract, facilitates its expulsion. When drug therapy is not sufficient, depending on the size and location of the kidney stone, various kidney stone treatment techniques can be used:
extracorporeal lithotripsy: it is one of the medical remedies that allows, through shock waves originating outside the patient’s body, to shatter the stone and promote the spontaneous elimination of fragments (recommended intervention in case of small and medium-sized stones, less than 1.5 / 2cm);
endoscopic urethral lithotripsy or ureterorenoscopy: using a small probe inserted through the urethral route, the doctor reaches the stone, shattering it with ultrasound or laser rays. It is a more invasive procedure.
percutaneous nephrolithotomy or surgical treatment: for larger kidney stones, which cannot be broken into small pieces using shock waves.
Also Read:Symptoms Of Kidney Stones
therapy is necessary to eliminate kidney stones, relieve pain, and prevent other mineral aggregates’ formation in the kidneys. Medicines for antispasmodic kidney stones (scopolamine butylbromide, atropine sulfate, belladonna, and papaverine hydrochloride). Which reduce the contractility of smooth muscle, are especially indicated for the treatment of renal colic (their use should be limited to cases in which the progression of calculation, due to its size and morphology, appears rather unlikely).
The classic NSAIDs already mentioned are widely used (Diclofenac, Ibuprofen), which prevent inflammation of the tissues, and analgesics (Pethidine) which, by solving the pain, interrupt the alternation between pain-spasm-pain without interfering with the ureteral peristalsis, which is fundamental for the progression and spontaneous elimination of the stone.
Antiemetics, on the other hand, represents a valid help against vomiting.
The doctor may prescribe drugs useful to limit the aggregate or drugs’ formation to dissolve kidney stones (favoring their spontaneous elimination). Sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate for ‘alkalization of the urine (the therapeutic technique that can prevent the formation of kidney stones). Potassium citrate tends to prevent the formation of uric acid and calcium oxalate stones.
Stages Of Passing A Kidney Stone: Natural
remedies Natural remedies for stones are represented by:
- herbal teas, consisting of up to six medicinal plants, chopped according to precise methods that are immersed in boiling water and left to infuse for 5/10 minutes;
- infusions consisting of flowers and leaves of a compound on which boiling water is poured and then left to rest for 5-10 minutes and filtered, which are drunk to stimulate diuresis.
Natural remedies to alleviate the painful symptoms of the disease and to keep the mineral salts in the urine in solution, minimizing the risk of kidney stones, therefore make use of herbal teas with a diuretic, anti-inflammatory, or spasmolytic action such as birch, ozonide thorny, dandelion, goldenrod, weed. Also, horsetail, stonecutter grass, coconut water, yerba mate, wild celery, Ruscus aculeatus mother tincture, essential oils of lavender, chamomile, and marjoram (to rub on the painful area) can help.
As already reported, the main recommendation to counteract. The formation of kidney stones is to keep the body hydrated through the intake of an adequate amount of fluids with the diet. Therefore, the chances of their aggregation are less. The water supply must always be proportionate to the type of diet. One of the natural cures to relieve spastic contraction of smooth muscles during colic is to immerse yourself in a tub of almost boiling water: the heat, in fact, exerts a vasodilating effect, able to relieve spastic pain. The heat would favor the bleeding).
What not to eat if you suffer from kidney stones: first of all. It is advisable to cook foods with a little salt (which can be replaced with spices or, in any case, with low-sodium salt). It is necessary to avoid or, in any case, limit the consumption of carbonated drinks, foods that are not easy to digest. Including fried foods and foods rich in fats, salty foods, meat and sweets, foods rich in oxalate (kiwi, spinach, beets, sweet potatoes, chocolate, soy), nuts and strawberries, alcohol. It is also necessary not to overdo the intake of vitamin C or to abuse supplements containing vitamin D.
In any case, the diet must be adapted to the type of stone disease the patient is suffering from. Reduce the urinary excretion of salts due to the formation of the stone, and increase its dilution. Increase the intake of substances that inhibit its formation (such as citric acid), decrease the factors. That favors the precipitation of salts responsible for the stone formation process. Therefore, a diet that usually involves a low protein intake, legumes. And some types of vegetables (such as artichokes, cabbage, celery, and onion) should be associated with the treatment deemed necessary natural remedies. Nettle, fruit rich in vitamin C (since ascorbic acid, in the right quantities, is a useful remedy to prevent the formation of stones), urinary alkalizing foods (such as lemon juice), whole foods, and fiber. Who, based on the type of calculation, establishes the appropriate diet.
Stages Of Passing A Kidney Stone: Specialists
In the case of kidney stones, you can contact the following specialists: urologist, nephrologist, radiologist, general practitioner. On the other hand, if you want to rely on a specialist working in complementary medicine to the homeopath. And for advice on the correct diet to follow for prevention. And treatment of stones to a dietician, nutritionist, or dietician.
Also Read:Symptoms Of Low Potassium
Stages Of Passing A Kidney Stone: Complications
Due to their shape and chemical composition, kidney stones can move from the site of origin, obstructing urine flow. This, in addition to often causing acute pain, can lead to complications. Such as the development of urinary infections and, in the long run. The possibility of kidney damage, up to progressive renal failure.