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What Is a Narcissistic

What Is a Narcissistic

Narcissism is a very complex personality disorder in which the subject who suffers from it develops a true obsession with his own image. The clinical and symptomatological characteristics of the pathological picture are variable. This article gives you full information about what is narcissistic. It is always possible to recognize three distinctive elements:

  • Self-consideration in terms of superiority (grandiosity) in fantasy or behavior;
  • The constant need for admiration;
  • Lack of empathy (i.e., the inability to recognize that other people also have wanted, feelings, and needs).

The causes of narcissism are not clearly and unambiguously defined; often, this picture results from the combination of several factors, social and biological. In particular, the development of the disorder can be favored by growing up in a disabling family environment characterized by demanding parents’ behavioral inhibition. The impact of pathological narcissism can be significant in many areas of life. Such as relationships, work, school, or financial affairs.

What is a Narcissistic

Narcissistic Personality Disorder is a complex psychiatric condition. This picture’s hallmarks are self-esteem in terms of superiority (grandeur), the constant need for admiration. And the lack of empathy (i.e., the ability to recognize that others also have desires, feelings, and needs).

Narcissistic personality disorder results from the combination of several social. And biological factors that intervene in the course of the individual’s development. And attach great importance to success. Narcissistic personality disorder can also result from growing up in a family environment unable. To provide the child with the necessary attention, over time, in response to this attitude, the subject would resolve the continuing threat to their self-esteem, developing a sense of superiority.

What is a narcissistic personality disorder that manifests itself with an exaggerated sense of superiority? The subjects who suffer from it tend to consider themselves better than others, exaggerate their abilities, and exalt their successes, often appearing presumptuous and exhibitionist. Another peculiar characteristic of narcissistic personality disorder is the lack of empathy, from which derives the belief that one’s needs come before anything else; narcissists also argue that their way of seeing things is the only one that is universally right.

Most common symptoms and signs

  • Alexithymia
  • Anguish
  • Suicidal behavior
  • Depression
  • Derealization
  • Dysphoria
  • Mood disturbances
  • Hypomania
  • Social isolation
  • Nervousness

The symptoms highlighted in bold are typical, but not exclusive, of Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

Narcissistic personality disorder

Narcissism is a personality trait and can be considered, to some extent, a normal state. However, if this psychological attitude seriously interferes with interpersonal relationships, daily commitments. And the quality of life, can take on pathological dimensions and significance.

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People affected by it tend to magnify their abilities exceedingly. And make themselves the exclusive and pre-eminent center of their interest, becoming the object of complacent admiration. Fantasies of unlimited success constantly absorb individuals who manifest a narcissistic personality. And manifest an almost exhibitionistic need for attention and admiration. Furthermore, these people cannot recognize and perceive others’ feelings, tend to exploit others to achieve their own ends, or despise the value of their work. However, behind this mask, the narcissist has fragile self-esteem that makes him vulnerable to the slightest criticism. If he encounters a failure, he can easily manifest extreme anger or depression due to his high opinion.

Causes of Pathological Narcissism

The causes of narcissism are not yet well understood. But the opinion is shared that this personality disorder may result from the complex combination of multiple social, psychological, and biological factors. These elements would intervene in the course of the individual’s development, influencing his behavior and thinking. In particular, the clinical picture can be favored by parents who believe in the future narcissist’s superiority and attach great importance to success, excessively criticizing fears and failures.

Narcissistic personality disorder can also result from growing up in a family environment unable to provide the child with the necessary attention; over time, in response to this attitude, the subject would resolve the continuing threat to their self-esteem, developing a sense of superiority and behavior. That demonstrates the need for constant admiration.

Usually, what is a narcissistic personality disorder that appears in the teens or teens by early adulthood? Children can manifest a narcissistic attitude during childhood, but this can represent a transitory character of their age and does not mean that they will develop a real pathological picture. The prevalence estimates of narcissistic personality disorder range from 2 to 16% in the clinical population, while they are less than 1% in the general population. 50-75% of individuals receiving this diagnosis belong to the male sex.

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Symptoms

What is a narcissist personality disorder manifests itself with an exaggerated sense of superiority? The subjects who suffer from it tend to consider themselves better than others. They exalt their abilities and their successes and exaggeratedly believe in their own worth. This behavior makes narcissists presumptuous, arrogant, selfish, and exhibitionistic. A direct consequence of this conduct is the constant need for others’ admiration, which are idealized or devalued depending on whether or not they recognize their status as unique and special people.

Another peculiar feature is the lack of empathy, which gives rise to the belief that one’s needs come before anything else. Since narcissists see themselves as superior to others, they believe they are allowed to meet their own needs without waiting, so they can exploit others, whose needs and opinions are deemed of little value. Furthermore, what are narcissistic people who argue that their way of seeing things is the only universal right?

Often, people with Narcissistic Personality Disorder believe that others envy or admire them. But they are hypersensitive to criticism, failure, and setback. When faced with an inability to satisfy their high opinion of themselves, narcissists may react with anger or contempt, develop panic attacks, become deeply depressed, or even attempt suicide.

Diagnostic criteria

  • To define the profile of the pathological narcissist, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, focuses on the following:
  • Has a great sense of importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expecting to be considered superior without proper motivation, etc.).
  • He believes that he is “special” and unique and can only be understood by – or must associate with – other special or high-class people (or institutions).
  • It requires excessive admiration.
  • It has a sense of entitlement, that is, the unreasonable expectation of special favorable treatment or immediate satisfaction of one’s expectations.
  • Use interpersonal relationships, that is, take advantage of other people for your own purposes.
  • Lacks empathy: is unable to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others.
  • He is often envious of others (or thinks others envy him).
  • Show arrogant and conceited behavior or attitudes.

Diagnostic criteria

To define the profile of the pathological narcissist, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, focuses on the following:

  • Has a great sense of importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expecting to be considered superior without proper motivation, etc.).
  • He is absorbed in fantasies of unlimited success, power, charm, beauty, or ideal love.
  • He believes that he is “special” and unique and can only be understood by – or must associate with – other special or high-class people (or institutions).
  • It requires excessive admiration.
  • It has a sense of entitlement, that is, the unreasonable expectation of special favorable treatment or immediate satisfaction of one’s expectations.
  • Use interpersonal relationships, that is, take advantage of other people for your own purposes.
  • Lacks empathy: is unable to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others.
  • He is often envious of others (or thinks others envy him).
  • Show arrogant and conceited behavior or attitudes.

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In the presence of pathological narcissism, the patient may not be aware that they have a personality disorder and is more likely to seek medical attention when symptoms of depression develop, often due to perceived criticism or denial. Therefore, if the person who suffers from it feels overwhelmed by extreme sadness or recognizes some traits of a narcissistic personality disorder, he should consider seeking the help of a specialist, who will help him understand the reasons for his attitudes and to undertake a path of treatment. A correct approach to narcissism allows, in fact, to intervene on the origin of the problems and can help make life more gratifying.

Possible Complications

If not treated properly, a narcissistic personality disorder can predispose to various complications, including:

  • Problems in interpersonal relationships;
  • Difficulty in daily activities (work or school);
  • Depression;
  • Addictions ( alcohol, smoking, or drugs);
  • Suicidal thoughts or behaviors.
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What is a narcissistic: Diagnosis?

A specialist formulates the diagnosis of pathological narcissism based on accurate medical history. Who precisely examines the patient’s personal and medical history, without neglecting the lifestyle and daily commitments. This in-depth psychological analysis allows the research of repetitive and maladaptive thought and behavior patterns throughout the patient’s developmental history.

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Some features of pathological narcissism are similar to those of other personality disorders. The differential diagnosis is placed, in particular, towards antisocial, histrionic, and borderline disorder, with which narcissism shares sensitivity to criticism and rejection, anger and demands for attention. The most useful element in the discrimination of these conditions is grandiosity, a hallmark of narcissistic disorder.

What is a narcissistic: Treatment?

The treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder is complicated, as the patient is often not aware of his or her own problem and the negative effect it causes on other people. Furthermore, the traits of pathological narcissism develop over many years, so the therapeutic approach takes a long time.

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Medicines

There are no specific medications available to treat narcissistic personality disorder. However, if you have manifestations of depression or other related conditions, medications such as antidepressants or anxiolytics can help. The management of emotional symptoms and anxiety represents, in fact, the first goal of treatment, even if traditional antidepressant therapies do not affect the personality characteristics.

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The narcissist pharmacological approach can include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ( SSRIs ), which can also be useful in reducing impulsive behaviors. Other drugs that can effectively intervene in the psychopathological phenomena frequently associated with pathological narcissism are anticonvulsants and mood stabilizers.

Psychotherapy

Narcissistic Personality Disorder can benefit from cognitive therapy in the medium to long term. Still, it needs specialists who emphasize empathy and do not challenge their patients’ perfectionism, feelings of privilege, and grandiosity.

The areas of intervention of psychotherapy are aimed at helping to:

  • Understanding the causes of their emotions and what drives them to compete and despise themselves or others;
  • Learn to relate to others, both in terms of intimate and personal relationships and as a collaboration with colleagues;
  • Recognize and accept the real current and potential skills to be able to tolerate any criticism;
  • Increase the ability to understand one’s feelings;
  • Understanding and tolerating the impact of self-esteem issues;
  • Gain acceptance of what is achievable and what can be accomplished.

Participation of family members in treatment is often helpful as they may unwittingly behave to reinforce the patient’s problematic thoughts and behaviors. Some personality traits can be difficult to change, so that narcissism therapy could take several years.

What is Narcissistic Personality Disorder

A pervasive pattern of grandiosity characterizes a narcissistic personality disorder, need for admiration, and lack of empathy.

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Estimates of this disorder’s prevalence range from 2% to 16% in the clinical population and are less than 1% in the general population. Approximately 50-75% of individuals diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder are male.

Symptoms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder have a grandiose sense of importance. And routinely overestimate their abilities and exaggerate their talents by appearing conceited and vain. They usually assume that others value them equally and may be surprised or disappointed. If they do not receive the praise, they feel they deserve. Under personal value, they believe they possess. Such individuals assume that they must associate. Seeing themselves as special and superior. They must obtain preferential treatment.

This sense of entitlement, together with a lack of sensitivity to others’ wishes and needs, is Narcissistic personality disorder. In fact, they tend to form friendships or sentimental relationships only if they are certain that the other can favor the satisfaction of their goals (first of all, reinforce and enhance self-esteem and personal value). They also expect enormous availability and dedication from others, to the point of abusing it, with no regard for the consequences. Individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder generally lack empathy. Proving unable to recognize the feelings and needs of others or to identify with them. They can often be envious of others and may believe that others envy them.

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