All around the world more than hundred millions of women suffers from Urinary Tract Infection. About 5% women have bacterial UTI. Symptomless bacterial presence in urine is in about 1% of neonates and 1–2% of schoolgirls. Throughout entire life, about one third of women experience symptoms those are suggestive of cystitis.Are probiotics can be handy option to prevent or treat UTI? Role, concepts and scopes of probiotics in urogenital infection is our topic to discuss.
Causes of UTI:
UTIs are largely caused by organisms from the gut thosecolonize in perineum and reach the bladder via urethra. Multiple risk factors predisposed to UTI include, sexual intercourse with multiple partners and exposure to spermicidal agents. Spermicides lead to loss of Lactobacilli and an increase in pH, which stimulates the growth of gram-negative organisms and subsequent UTI.Stamm and Hooton reported Escherichia coli as the agent responsible in most cases (up to 85%), followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococci.
What are Probiotics?
Probiotics are “Live microorganisms, which, when consumed in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.”
This is the modern definition of probiotics, drafted by joint expert consultation of the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization in Argentina (2001).
Concept of Probiotics
Let’s first know about Microbiome…
Collection of all the microorganisms, living in association with the human body is known as human Microbiome. Microbiome is generally not harmful to human; in fact they are essential for maintaining health.
How Microbiome helps?
- They produce some vitamins that humans do not have the genes to make.
- Microbiome breaks down food to nutrients that human need to survive.
- Teach human immune systems to recognize foreign invaders.
- Microbiome also has some anti-inflammatory functions to eliminate other disease causing microbes.
Disruption of the Microbiomerenders patients prone to severe infection with not only one, but also several pathogenic microorganisms. A strategy to restore a host-supportive Microbiome involves the use of probiotics.Live microorganisms are known to influence production of immunoglobulins and thus altering the body’s immune defence. They are also able to contribute to a specific immune response against pathogenic bacteria.When human body lose parts of Microbiome, like after taking antibiotics, after diarrhea etc probiotics can be used to replace them. Probiotics can be used to balance Microbiome and “bad” bacteria to keep body working the way it should.
Pro, Pre &Synbiotics
Let’s start with definitions:
Probiotics are live microorganisms, which, when consumed in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.
Prebiotics are metabolic fuel that microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract use for their survival.
When Probiotic organisms and prebiotics are served as composition it’s often called synbiotics.
By definition Pro, Pre &Synbiotics are not same. That’s why; Probiotics should not be confused with prebiotics or Synbiotics.
There is disagreement about whether dead or deactivated microorganisms or microbial products should be included in the term “Probiotics”.
Commonly Used probiotic Strains:
Health benefits have mainly been demonstrated for specific probiotic strains of the following genera: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces boulardii, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcuslactis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 etc.
How Probiotic works?
In Gastrointestinal tract Probiotics reduce growth of pathogenic microorganisms,
- By fostering colonization resistance,
- By improving intestinal transit,
- By helping normalize a perturbed microbiota.
Probiotics helps in
- Production of bioactive metabolites (e.g., short-chain fatty acids)
- Reduction of luminal pH in the colon
Probiotics also helps in
- Vitamin synthesis,
- Gut barrier reinforcement,
- Bile salt metabolism,
- Enzymatic activity, and
- Toxin neutralization.
Through all of these mechanisms, probiotics have wide range of impacts on human health and disease.
Natural& Commercial Probiotics
Probiotics are present in some foods naturally by their process of food making. Foods those are preparing by the process of fermentation are usually rich in probiotics. The term probiotics comprises a number of microbes rather a single one. Healthy individuals can benefit from taking these foods regularly. But for a person who needs to be treated for a specific disease that need specific strain of probiotics in a calculated dose, commercial preparation of probiotics came in front.
You can buy probiotics @ Online Pharmacy in Bangladesh
Probiotics in Urogenital infection
Most urogenital microfloraoriginates from the gut. Studies have shown that the daily oral intake of L rhamnosus and L fermentum can modify the vaginal flora. Administration of the probiotic organisms even normalized the flora, opening opportunities of a possible long-term therapy for pregnant women and those susceptible to UTI. Insertion of Lactobacilli into the vagina via a pessary or capsule is an effective means of boosting the content of the flora and overcoming some pathogens or reducing their ability to dominate. This seems to be true for UTI pathogens. Study shows lactobacilli were beneficial for the treatment of patients with bacterial vaginosis. No clear benefit was seen for candidiasis or urinary tract infection.
Probiotics show promise in becoming an alternative or complementary treatment option for many diseases. As probiotics are already in use in many fermented products, there are no major safety concerns. Probiotics are derived mainly from the human gut flora and belong to a still poorly understood metabolic organ of the human body. Probiotics have the potential for a future alternative prevention and treatment strategy in RUTI. They are also potentially preventive for cancer development and progression. In conclusion the use of certain lactobacillus strains such as L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri for prevention and treatment of recurrent urogenital infection is promising