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Human Body Joints

Human Body Joints

Hip (or coxo-femoral) joint

The hip joint (or coxo-femoral) is a typical enarthrosis (mobile joint – diarthrosis -, the articular surfaces of which consist of a spherical or hemispherical shape and a concavity which is in turn spherical) which joins the femur to the hip bone. The hip bone concurs with an almost hemispherical articular cavity.  Here you can know about human body joints and the femur with the femoral head which represents about 2/3 of a full sphere of 4 or 5 cm in diameter.

Similarly to what happens in the homologous shoulder joint (or shoulder joint), the joint surfaces are not perfectly corresponding. A glenoid rim, the lip of the acetabulum , widens the surface of the cavity and makes it suitable for containing the head of the femur. Unlike the glenoid lip of the scapulohumeral joint, which has no other function than that of enlarging the corresponding cavity, the acetabular lip has an important role in the union between the femur and the hip; it is therefore a means of containing the joint. The acetabular lip also bridges the notch of the acetabulum, converting it into a hole.

Glenoid cavity

Not all the glenoid cavity takes direct part in the joint; in its center, in fact, there is a quadrilateral depression, the fossa of the acetabulum, not covered with articular cartilage, but with a periosteum. From this fossa starts a ligament, with a rectangular section, the round ligament of the femur , which ends up on the fovea capitis of the femoral head and which, as a rule, does not exceed 35 mm in length.

The joining means are represented by the joint capsule to which three reinforcing ligaments are attached, and by an intramuscular remote ligament, the round ligament .

The joint capsule it is a fibrous sleeve, inserted proximal on the contour of the acetabulum and on the acetabular lip and distally on the interchangeable line, forward, and on a line placed on the border between the middle third and lateral third of the femoral neck, behind. In this way, the anterior face of the anatomical neck of the femur is intramuscular, while the posterior face is only in the 2/3 medial.

The longitudinal ,  memorabilia ,  ischiofemoral and pubofemoral reinforcement ligaments are not dissociable from the capsule . They are nothing more than thickened portions of the capsule and are also called ileocapsulare ligaments ,  ischiocapsulare and pubocapsulare.Next to these, the orbicular zone is described, which is a deep reinforcement bundle with transversal fibers.

Iliofemoral ligament

The iliofemoral ligament is fan-shaped; it originates below the anterior inferior iliac spine, with two bundles that diverge like a fan. The oblique beam , directed to the anterior margin of the greater trochanter and the vertical beam. Towards the lower part of the intertrochanteric line.

  • The pubofemoral ligament arises from the pubic tract of the edge of the acetabulum. From the ileum-combine eminence and from the lateral part of the upper branch of the pubis to get lost in the capsule in front of the lesser trochanter.
  • The ischiofemoral ligament is triangular and from the ischial side of the cotyloid eyelash it leads out to the trochanteric fossa.
  • The orbicular area , covered by the previous ligaments. Detaches from the edge of the acetabulum and from the acetabular lip. Deeply to the insertion of the ileofemoral ligament and, passing behind the neck of the femur that embraces the loop. Returns to fix itself at the point of origin.
  • The round ligament of the femur extends from the fovea capitis. From which it descends, widening and remaining applied on the head of the femur, to then reach, with two roots. The edges of the notch of the acetabulum. Flat and laminar, the round ligament is not as tense as interosseous ligaments usually are.
Synovial

The synovial presents the characteristic disposition of diarthrosis. It covers the internal surface of the capsule. Having reached its insertions, it is reflected with a recurring route to coat the intracapsular portions of the bone heads up to the limits of the articular cartilages. It forms a complete sheath to the round ligament.

Knee joint

Anatomy

The  knee  is an articulation in which the femur, tibia and patella come into play.

It is difficult to classify because the joint relationship established between the femur. Patella can in fact be defined as an arthrodia, while the femoro-tibial one is attributable. For some characters, to the condyloid joints. Others to the angular gingles . Furthermore, while the articular surfaces seem to allow an extended freedom of movement. The ligamentous apparatus of the joint ends up limiting them to the only flexion-extension. At the level of the knee there is then a transmission of body weight to the leg: the joint therefore also has an important static task.

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The femur participates in the joint with theanterior patellar surface. Shaped like a trochlea, and with the articular surfaces of the condyles. The two sides of the trochlea diverge posteriorly and a deep intercondyloid notch follows the throat . On the sides of the notch. The posterior extensions of the trochlea form two convex reliefs in the anteroposterior direction, the condyles . The tibia takes part in the joint with the upper end. Opposing the two glenoid cavities on the internal and external tibial condyles to the femoral condyles. The glenoid cavities have shallow oval surfaces and are separated by a non-articular. Rough area that rises in the middle to form the intercondyloid eminenceand widens backwards and forwards in the respective intercondylar pits .

The patella participates in the joint with its posterior surface that corresponds to the femoral trochlea.

Human Body Joints: Menisci

The marked sagittal convexity of the two femoral condyles does not correspond to an equal concavity of the tibial surfaces. The harmony between the articular surfaces is therefore established by the interposition of two menisci. One medial and one lateral. These have the shape of half-rings and their thickness is reduced proceeding from the periphery to the center. Seen in section, they therefore have a triangular profile.

The lateral meniscus forms an almost complete circle. The medial one is interrupted on the internal side and therefore has the shape of C. With their ends (or horns), the menisci are fixed on the intercondylar portion of the tibia. Anteriorly, the two menisci are joined together by a transverse ligament. Thetransverse knee ligament .

The joining means are represented by an articular capsule and by reinforcing ligaments.

Joint capsule

The fibrous layer of the joint capsule constitutes a sleeve characterized by the brevity and solidity of the lateral and posterior parts and by the laxity of the anterior portion. Its femoral insertion line is at a distance of several millimeters from the edges of the incrustation cartilage of the articular surfaces. The tibial one is fixed to the infraglenoid margin and continues posteriorly with the cruciate ligaments. At the level of the patella, the capsule is fixed to the margins of the bone while above and below it becomes very thin.

The synovial covers the internal surface of the fibrous capsule with a characteristic arrangement. Anteriorly it extends below the quadriceps muscle to form the suprapatellar synovial bursa; posteriorly it forms a posterior concavity shower in which the cruciate ligaments are received, which are therefore extra-articular; on the sides it covers the internal surface of the fibrous capsule and then reflects on the intraarticular bone surfaces. In correspondence with the menisci it stops due to the adherence of the menisci to the fibrous capsule; the synovial is therefore divided into an upper and a lower floor.

The fibrous capsule has numerous thickenings that strengthen it by forming the anterior, posterior, lateral and cruciate ligaments.

Anterior (or patellar) ligament

The anterior ligament (or patellar ligament) is the sub-patellar tract of the tendon of the quadriceps femoral muscle. In which the same patella is included, as sesamoid bone. It is a robust triangular lamina that fits on the tibial tuberosity. Just above the insertion, the ligament is separated from the surface of the tibia by the interposition of an infrapatellar synovial bursa; higher still, at the joint line, an adipose sapphire separates it from the joint capsule. Above this fat mass is the patella which is fixed laterally to the femoral condyles by two fibrous bands. The retinacles (or wings ) of the patella .

Human Body Joints: Posterior ligament

The posterior ligament is formed by the shells of the condyles and the median ligament .

The cotyledon shells are thickenings that the capsule has at the level of each cotyledon.

The median ligament occupies the intercontinental space; it consists of own fibers, directed from the femur to the two bones of the leg which form a sort of fibrous arch, the arched popliteal ligament and fibers belonging to the semi membranous muscle tendon that form the oblique popliteal ligament.

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Collateral ligaments

The collateral ligaments are two strong fibrous bands, placed on the sides of the knee and partially separate from the capsule.

The tibial (or medial ) collateral ligament is a large, sturdy lamina that strengthens the capsule on the medial side. It extends from a tubercle placed on the medial condyle of the femur to the medial condyle of the tibia. Its anterior fibers merge with the medial retinaculum of the patella, while the deeper ones attach to the medial meniscus.

The fibular (or lateral) collateral ligament) is a fibrous cord stretched by a tubercle of the lateral condyle of the femur to the lateral surface of the head of the fibula. The popliteal muscle tendon passes deeply while the biceps tendon is divided on the two sides of its insertion.

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Human Body Joints: Cruciate ligaments

The cruciate ligaments are intramuscular and are located in a vertical plane, between the femoral condyles. They are short and strong cords that cross at X and receive their denomination of anterior and posterior for the relationship that they contract with the intercontinental eminence of the tibia.

The anterior cruciate ligament detaches from a rough surface placed in front of the intercondyloid eminence and moves up and back to attach itself to the medial face of the lateral condyle of the femur.

The posterior cruciate ligament extends from a surface located behind the intercontinental eminence to the lateral face of the medial cotyledon of the femur.

 

The articular cavity of the knee is the widest of all the joints. It extends beyond the interarticular space. Moving up towards the patella and including the femoropatellar joint as well as the suprapatellar bursa. The synovial membrane. Which follows the joint capsule and is reflected on the intracapsular bone heads up to the limits of the articular cartilages. Extends to the suprapatellar bursa and the sides of the patella. Also delimiting other recesses of the articular cavity located behind each femoral condyle. It is rich in hairy fringes, especially near the joint spacing.

Instep ligaments

At the level of the tibio-tarsal joint are the ligaments of the instep , also called retinacles . We can distinguish extensor muscles, peroneal muscles and flexor muscles.

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Human Body Joints: Function

These ligaments act as restraint devices for tendons that lead from the leg to the foot. These tendons at the instep, forming an angle which, in the rest position of the foot itself, is around 100 ° -110 °.

The retinacles of the extensor muscles  ( or  anterior ligaments of the instep) and are distinguished in the upper and lower.

The upper retinaculum (or transverse leg ligament ) is represented by a fibrous tape arranged transversely. Which attaches to the anterior margin of the tibia and to the lateral face of the fibula.

The lower retinaculum (or cruciate ligament ) consists of a superficial and a deep portion.

The superficial portion detaches from the lateral face of the calcaneus. Its carried medially and forks into two branches of which the lower one ends on the scaphoid. On the 1st cuneiform bone and the upper one divides into a superficial lamina (or pretendinea). That passes anteriorly to the tendon of the anterior tibial muscle and it is fixed to the medial malleolus. In a deep lamina, (or retro tendon), which passes behind the tendon and goes to insert itself also to the medial malleolus. In the thickness of the superficial portion of the retinaculum a fibrous canal is therefore formed in which the tendon of the anterior tibial muscle is received. Sliding is facilitated by the presence of a mucous membrane.

Retinaculum

The deep portion of the retinaculum follows the insertions of the superficial portion, but remains resting on the skeletal plane. Between the two portions, superficial and deep, there is a canal divided by sagittal septa into secondary galleries; they engage the tendons of the anterior peroneal muscles, long extensor of the fingers and long extensor of the big toe. Here too mucous membranes facilitate the sliding of the tendons.

The vascular nervous bundle of the foot does not pass into any of these channels. But runs below the deep leaflet.

The receptacles of the peroneal muscles are divided into upper and lower. Both range from the lateral malleolus to the lateral face of the heel. Types of Joints in the Human Body … The knee joint provides flexion to the legs and absorbs some of the force of running and walking.They form a sheath divided by a septum into two secondary channels intended for the passage of the tendons of the two lateral peroneal muscles that engage in it surrounded by mucous sheaths.

The retinaculum of the flex or muscles (or lacinated ligament ) is a ligament that extends along the medial side of the instep. It is stretched from the apex and posterior margin of the medial malleolus to the postero-inferior part of the medial face of the heel. Two septa detach themselves from its deep face and go to insert itself on the underlying skeleton. In this way, three osteofibrosis channels are created for the passage of the tendons of the posterior tibial muscles. Types of Joints in the Human Body … The knee joint provides flexion to the legs and absorbs some of the force of running and walking.,The long flexor of the fingers and the long flex or of the big toe. Also in this case the sliding of the tendons is facilitated by mucous sheaths.

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